Tech Talk

Backscatter spam is when a spoofed message is caught (usually intentionally) and sends bouncebacks to the return addresses listed in the mail. It's a clever way to deliver spam.The Backscatterer blacklist has a FAQ:

Users are not able to manually request to be removed from the Backscatterer Blacklist. The IP Address will be monitored and removed when the spam activity has ceased."

Predatory blacklists like that are usually not used as a reference for legit mail servers, so you usually don't have to worry about those types of list holders for long.

ModSecurity is a web application firewall (WAF) that helps protect web applications from various security threats and attacks. When ModSecurity rules are triggered, it means that the firewall has detected potentially malicious activity or a violation of specified security rules. These triggers often indicate an attempt to exploit vulnerabilities or conduct malicious actions against a web application.

Here are some common reasons why ModSecurity rules might be triggered:

1. **SQL Injection Attempts:** ModSecurity may detect attempts to inject malicious SQL queries into web application forms or URLs, which could be a sign of an SQL injection attack.

2. **Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) Attacks:** The firewall may trigger on attempts to inject malicious scripts into web pages, potentially leading to cross-site scripting vulnerabilities.

3. **File Inclusion or Directory Traversal Attacks:** ModSecurity can identify attempts to include or traverse directories improperly, which could be indicative of an attempt to access unauthorized files or directories.

4. **Command Injection Attempts:** Detection of attempts to inject and execute commands on the server may trigger ModSecurity rules, highlighting potential command injection vulnerabilities.

5. **Brute Force Attacks:** ModSecurity may be configured to detect patterns associated with brute force login attempts or password guessing attacks.

6. **Security Policy Violations:** Rules might be triggered when there are violations of security policies defined by the ModSecurity configuration.

When ModSecurity rules are triggered, it's crucial to investigate and understand the nature of the triggered events. The firewall may log information about the event, including details about the request, the rule that was triggered, and the action taken (e.g., blocking the request).

Here are some steps to address ModSecurity rule triggers:

1. **Review Logs:** Examine ModSecurity logs to understand which rules were triggered and the details of the associated requests. Logs are often located in a designated log directory, and the specific location can be configured in the ModSecurity configuration file.

2. **Adjust Rules:** Depending on your specific application and security requirements, you may need to adjust ModSecurity rules. This can involve fine-tuning existing rules, creating custom rules, or disabling rules that are overly restrictive for your application.

3. **False Positives:** Some triggers might be false positives, where legitimate requests are incorrectly identified as malicious. In such cases, rules may need to be adjusted or exceptions added.

4. **Regular Updates:** Ensure that ModSecurity rules are regularly updated to protect against new threats. Rule sets are often updated by the ModSecurity community or security providers.

5. **Collaborate with Developers:** Work closely with application developers to understand the application's normal behavior and identify any areas where ModSecurity rules might be too restrictive.

It's important to note that the specific steps and considerations may vary depending on the ModSecurity configuration, the web application, and the nature of the triggered events.

Webhook is a term used to describe a callback method in which one software system uses APIs to instantly notify another of an event. That means one application can send a web-based message request every time a qualifying event happens. The format is usually JSON. The request is done as a HTTP POST request.